Marine Plants and Animals    The specific composition of animals and plants in the Sanctuary is highly multiform, this being due to their considerably different living conditions. As a result, it boasts both warm-water—subtropical species and cold-water boreal and boreal-arctic species; hence their larvae spread to neighboring areas of Peter the Great Bay.
    The hydrology of the Sanctuary’s water area is also plays a major role in promoting abundance of marine life. Three main vertical zones are distinguished in the littoral: the supralittoral, the littoral and sublittoral.
    The supralittoral or splash zone is located higher than the upper level of the highest rated high tide. However, due to wind disturbances, particularly during storms, the sea ejects algae and various bottom invertebrates here. Besides, small crustaceans, certain bugs and their larvae, wingless insects and worms constantly live here. Particularly large accumulations of algae and animals ejected by the sea are noted on sandy beaches.

     Следующая зона - литораль, или приливно-отливная зона - занимает полосу от самого высокого расчетного прилива до самого низкого отлива. Нижняя граница литорали принимается за 0 глубин, и с него ведется отсчет отметок глубин и высот, наносимых на морские карты.
The next zone -- the littoral or the ebb and flow zone—occupies a strip from the highest rated high tide to the lowest low tide. The lower littoral boundary is taken for depth zero, from which the marks of depths and heights plotted on sea charts are counted off. Specific animals and plants, adapted to life in these peculiar conditions characterize the littoral. In summer, during low tide, the temperature on the littoral rises considerably, while in winter ice floes moving under the influence of disturbances produce an abrading effect on animals and plants; during storms, waves strike them. Consequently, the organisms inhabiting the littoral have adaptive properties allowing them to live in this zone. Then creep into cracks and pools between rocks, cling to them or attach to solid surfaces.
    The largest number of animal and plant species live on the sublittoral situated from the lower littoral boundary till depths of 200 m. The population of the Sanctuary waters includes over two hundred species of macroalgae and 200 fish species, , over 300 species of bivalve and gastropod mollusks, over two huddled species of sea worms, about 100 crustacean species, 40 - echinoderms, and many other cold water—boreal-Arctic and warm-water—subtropical and even tropical invertebrate marine organisms. Tropical sharks and sea snakes (see Supplement) were encountered in Sanctuary waters.

A. TIURIN, Cand. Sci (Biology).