PrimoryeProtection
ANIMAL  KINGDOM  OF  KEDROVAYA  PADJ   PRESERVE

Kedrovaya Padj Natural Preserve           Even though the area of Kedrovaya Padj is not great, its animal kingdom is quite diverse. Similarly to the plant kingdom, among the animals inhabiting the Preserve many species are characteristic both of southern and northern forests of the Russian Far East. Among them, quite a few originate from the tropics. Notably insects are highly varied. The large number of plant species is conducive to the development on them of highly variegated insects, while the relatively mild winters in the area allow them to readily endure the winter diapause. The largest number of insects is observed in July and August, when most of them enter the adult stage. At that time, numerous insects are encountered over blossoming meadows, in tall grass, in forest bedding, under brushwood, in rotten tree stumps and on trees. The coloring and large size of such exotic butterflies as the Saturnidae, swallowtails, the Ussuri and erebomorpic Geometridae, and the Cerambycidae long-horned leaf  beetle.
 Some insect species were for the first time found in Kedrovaya Padj not only in the former USSR, but even in the history of research. Among them were the snow metal ribbon, the Pagachuk zephyr, several species of stem borers, mosquitoes, Chironomidae, etc. Local representatives of the ancient primitive insects, the grilloblattin and relict cockroach, are also interesting. However, the local invertebrate fauna has been studied relatively little, only fragmentary investigations being available for most groups.
 From ten to eleven fish species inhabit local rivers and streams. Passing salmon fish present considerable interest. The most common fish inhabitants are the minnow and loach. Nor is the number of amphibian and reptile species great. You often come across the Far Eastern frog, and commonly encounter the Siberian angletooth; the gray toad and the brightly colored Far Eastern toad (Bombinator igneus). Various grass snakes inhabit Kedrovayas  forests and meadows. Of poisonous snakes, we come across two viper species. The Amur Parus caudatus is also common.
 The bird population is highly diversified. Birds are attractive especially in winter, when  males, many of who are dressed in bright plumage and the gentle green forests and meadows are filled with endless bird songs. With regard to brightness of coloring, the birds are perhaps not inferior to butterflies, and in some cases even surpass them.  In Kedrovaya, blue birds alone number five species, including the blue flycatcher, the blue nightingale, the blue Aldedo ispida, the blue magpie and the wide-mouth species. The dark-headed oriole and the yellow-back flycatcher have beautiful black-yellow coloring. The most beautiful mandarin duck also nests here. Over a small area, one can encounter  all five coockoo bird species inhabiting Russia. Seven species of genuine woodpeckers, including the small and big sharp-winged species inhabit local forests. Such species as the loess with lime nodules, the larva-eater, the accipitral buzzard, the small quail and others normally nest here, and in winter the larva-eater, the hawk-like buzzard, the small quail and others commonly nest here, and in cold time of the year the white-tail and white-shoulder sea eagles, the golden eagle and  black griffon visit the area. During clear June nights, the shrill voices of spine-legged owls alternate with the humming of the meadow tridactyl bird, and cries of the long-tailed Strix aluco are heard from wild hill ravines
 Of large mammals, the most usual in the preserve are the roe deer and boar. The spotted deer and musk deer may be encountered much less frequently. Whereas encounters with hoofed animals occur quite normally, one can very rarely see the cautious representatives of the cat family: the Amur tiger, the Far Eastern leopard, and the wild Far Eastern cat. More often, one can judge of their presence and behavior only in winter by traces left in the snow. The preserve range is small for the tiger, and he comes here only occasionally. The leopard occupies chiefly the central part, since the Preserve is surrounded from all sides by settlements and roads. In bumper years for the Korean cedar and Manchurian nut, squirrels appear in masses, and the flying squirrel, the shrub Manchurian hare, the chipmunk and the mohair mole sometimes visit the forests. Of mouse-like rodents, the red-gray field mouse is the most numerous species. The Siberian ferret, the American mink and the otter are also frequent visitors. Noted from among rare species were the tiny and giant shrews, the Ussuri tubinose and the Ikonnikov bat. The list of preserve mammals must be specified since the mountain goat and red wolf are still being copied from one list from another, while decades had elapsed since they were last encountered in the area. Again, the specific composition of shrews and bats is still to be elucidated.

Invertebrates                                      Amphibia


D. O. ZAMIATIN, Kedrovaya Padj Preserve
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