PrimoryeProtection
F U N G I

Fungi          Kedrovaya boasts a huge variety of fungi, and now 1,827 species from the classes Oomycetes, Chytridiomycetes, Zygomycetes, Plectornycetes, Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes, Hysteriomycetes, Discomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Urediniomycetes, Hyphomycetes and Coelomycetes have been discovered here. Let us examine the fungi groups most widely represented in Kedrovaya.
    Discomycetes are widespread in all climatic zones, and the majority of them are saprotrophs, destroyers of fallen leaves and wood, that take active part in forming humus or transforming certain minerals, e.g. calcium. Previously, twenty-four species from the order Perizales and fifty-five species from the order Leotiales were assigned to Kedrovaya (Koval, 1972; Kullman, 1982; Raitviir, 1991).
    The highest percentage of rare fungi has been recorded here. Fifteen percent or thirty-nine species of the total number of Discomycetes noted for Russia, have so far been found only in Kedrovaya. Of the Of the coprotrophic Ascobolaceae, only one species, Saccobolus depauperatus, has been revealed here to develop on ruminant manure. Slight soil sodding helped develop a large number of ground species from the Helvellaceae, Morchellaceae and Pezizaceae families.  Besides, the calcium-loving Pyronema domesticum was discovered on the ground in Kedrovaya, whereas in other Primorye preserves (Ussuri and Laso) it was observed only on old plastering. The presence of deadwood from various tree species caused numerous fungi from the families Pyronemataceae, Sarcosomataceae and Orbiliaceae to settle on wood.  Moisture and heat-loving species from the Hyaloscyphaceae and Leotiaceae families are widely represented here.
    Saprotrophic fungi are most widely distributed in Kedrovaya. Their share in humifying plant remains amounts to 82 per cent of the total Discomycete species revealed here. The abundance of fallen leaves and deadwood in maritime forests, high humidity and positive temperatures create comfortable conditions for intensified growth of species from this trophic group.  The second largest groups of species (10%) are micorhizoforming Discomycetes. Parasite species occur relatively seldom (8%).
    The specific composition of Pyrenomycetes and Loculoascomycetes is characterized by very high diversity. Revealed only in Kedrovaya were such species as Biscogniauxia polysperma (Mont.) Lar.Vass., B. uniapiculata (Penz. Et Sacc.) Whalley et Laessoe, Peridoxylon petersii (Berk. et Curt.) Petrak, and Tubeufia helicoma (Phill.et Plowr.) Piroz., preferentially widespread in subtropical areas of the globe.
    The following species novel to science and so far never discovered elsewhere have been revealed in Kedrovaya: Chromendothia appendiculata Lar. Vass. (type of new genus), Eutypa choseniae Lar. Vass. And Ostropella luxurians Lar. Vass. Complete information on the fungi of these groups is contained in the fourth volume of a report titled УLower plants, fungi and Bryophyta of the Russian Far EastФ (Vassilieva, 1998), and also in a number of other papers (Vassilieva, 1988, 1991, 1993a and (b); and
Vassilieva, 1993, 1994, 1997).
    Z. Azbukina (1974) studied KedrovayaТs rust fungi (Urediniomycetes) species and L. Egorova (1986) its Hyphomycetes and Coelomycetes species.

Porhyrellus atrobrumrens
Macrolepiota procera
Phallus impudicus
Anthurus javanicus
Pleurotus citrinopileatus
 
                         References

Z. Azbukina, Rust fungi of the Far East. Moscow: Nauka Publishers, 1974, 527 pp. (in Russian).

E. Bulakh, To the Agar Fungi Flora of Kedrovaya Padj Preserve (Taxonomic Floristic Studies of Sporophytes of the Far East). Vladivostok: Far East Science Center, USSR Academy of Sciences, 1984, 70-71 in Russian).

E. Bulakh, Fam. Russulaceae //Lower Plants, Fungi and Bryophyta of the Soviet Far East. Fungi. Vol. 1, Leningrad: Nauka Publishers, 1990, 13-117 (in Russian).

L. Egorova, Soil Fungi of the Far East. Gifomycety (Hyphomycetes). Leningrad. Nauka Publishers, 1986, 192 pp. (in Russian).

O. Govorova, Dacrymycetales of the Russian Far East. I. Synopsis of the Genus Calocera (Fr.) Fr.//Mikologiya i fitopatologiya (Mycology and Phytopathology). 1994. Vol. 28, ed. 4, 1-6 (in Russian).

O. Govorova, Heterobasidial Fungi from Preserves of the Russian Far East//Mikologiya i fitopatologiya (Mycology and Phytopathology). Vol. 31, ed. 3, 10-13 (in Russian).

E. Kovalj, Microflora of Kedrovaya Padj Preserve //Transactions of the Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Far East Science Center, USSR Academy of Sciences. 1972. Vol. 8, 105-144 (in Russian).

B. Kullman, Critical Survey of the Genus Scutellinia (Pezizales) in the Soviet Union. Tallinn: Valgus Publishers, 1982, 158 pp. (in Russian).

A. Raitviir, The Order Helotiales Naqnnf.//Lower Plants, Fungi and Bryophyta. Vol. 2. 1991. 254-363 (in Russian).

L. Vasilyeva, Basidial Fungi and Macromycetes of Kedrovaya Padj Preserve//Transactions of Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Far East Science Center, USSR Academy of Sciences. 1972. Vol. 8. 145-`167 (in Russian).

L. Vasilyeva, Systematic Position of Camarops polysperma (Mont.) J. H. Miller and the Genus Biscogniauxia O. Kuntze in the Far East //Mikologiya i fitopatologiya (Mycology and Phytopathology). 1991. Vol. 25, Ed. 6, 474-481 (in Russian).

L. Vasilyeva, Fungi of the Genus Valsa Fr. (Pyrenomycetes) in the Russian Far East//Komarov Readings. Vladivostok, 1993a, ed. 38 (in Russian).

L. Vasilyeva, Chromendothia, a New Genus of the Family Hypocreaceae//Mikologia i fitopatologiya (Mycology and Phytopathology). 1993b. Vol. 27, ed. 4, 1-7 (in Russian).

L. Vasilyeva, Pyrenomycetes and Loculoascomycetes//Lower Plants, Fungi and Bryophyta of the Far East. (Ed. Z. M. Azbukina) St. Petersburg, 1998, Vol. 4, 119 pp. (in Russian).

L. Vasilyeva, Pyrenomycetes of the Russian Far East. I. Gnomoniaceae. Vladivostok, 1993. 67 pp.

L. Vasilyeva, Pyrenomycetes of the Russian Far East. II.
Valsaceae. Vladivostok, 1994.  80 pp.

L. Vasilyeva, Ostropella luxurians sp. Nov. from the Russian Far East//Mycoscience. 1997. Vol. 38, 3, 341-342.

The above material was provided by the following researchers of Laboratory of Lower Plants, Institute of Biology and Soil Science, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences:

Z. Azbukina, D. Sc. (Biology);
A. Bogacheva, Cand. Sci. (Biology);
E. Bulakh, Cand. Sci. (Biology);
L. Vassilieva, D. Sci. (Biology);
O. Govorova, Cand. Sci. (Biology);
L.  Egorova, D. Sci. (Biology).

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