(Abies holophylla)

    Forests with prevalence or considerable participation in the tree stocks of A. holophylla grow only in southern Primorye in basins of rivers flowing into Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan. Back in the 1950s, forests with predominant A. holophylla occupied about 6%, and when it involved 10-30%, over 20% of the forest-covered area of southern Primorye. Today, the area of these forests has considerably diminished and continues to decrease, despite the ban on commercial cuttings of this species.
    Abies holophylla forests are richest in Primorye in specific composition, and A. holophylla is the largest conifer tree in the region, up to 35-40 m tall and over 1 m in diameter. Unlike other Siberian and Russian Far Eastern spruce species, its wood is as valuable as that of fur.
    The most widespread black spruce species (the different-shrub and fern species) form grade II-I tree stock with timber reserves of up to 600-700 cu. m/ha. The tree stocks are mixed, usually three-tier, and the number of plant species in all tiers of such coenoses total up to 250 to  include 2-3 species of Actinidia, Vitis amurensis, Betula schmidtii, Acer mandshuricum and many others that occur in Russia only in southern Primorye.
    Chopping and fires have disturbed the most productive types of A. holophylla forests more than other species. A. holophylla seedlings grow well under the canopy of secondary mixed larchwood forests and once fires are extinguished you can count on restoring its prevalence, albeit this is a very lengthy process.