УMINORФ FOREST FORMATIONS

    Several forest formations and subformations have been formed in Primorye by relatively rare species with restricted range, or those distributed quite extensively, though forming forests with their own prevalence very rarely and only over small sites. Occasionally forests with unusual combination of prevalent forest forming species, viz. cedar-larchwood and oak-larchwood, occur over small areas. They are evidently of post-fire origin, but owing to the considerable life of forest formers exist for a long time and can be assigned to the subformation category.
    Groves of Taxus cuspidata occur very seldom and in small areas in various parts of Primorye. The largest site is on Petrov Island off the coast of southern Primorye. At the upper distribution boundary and in the northern half of Primorye, T. cuspidata assumes the form of a shrub.
    Forests with prevalence and absolute dominance of Pinus funebris occupied in the past noticeable areas in the south and southwest of Primorye. Today, their remains still exist over small areas, occupying the upper parts of steep slopes and ridges at altitudes of up to 500 m in basins of rivers flowing into Lake Hanka and Peter the Great Bay, and in the upper reaches of Arsenievka River.
    In the south of Primorye, in basins of rivers flowing into Peter the Great Bay, and on the dry lime cliffs and detritus of Mts. Zmeinnaya and
Chindolad, rare Juniperus rigida trees (8-10 m tall) still exist with rare underbrush and grass canopy of Rhododendron amurensis, Arthemisia spp., Selaginella and few other aridity-resistant species.
    In basins of rivers flowing into Lake Hanka (chiefly from the west), rare Armeniaca mandshurica trees occur, and Armenica sibirica in the basin of Razdolnaya (Suifun) River. These species occupy low watersheds and steep rocky southerly slopes. Several cultured varieties widespread in country gardens have been cultivated on the basis of these Armeniaca species.
    In the south of Primorye, forests with prevalence of Fraxinus rhynchophylla occasionally occur to preferentially occupy gently sloping and medium-steep southerly slopes. Though they have existed for a long time, they essentially represent merely age or restorative stages of development of certain types of mixed forests with prevalence of Quercus mongolica.
 
  
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