PrimoryeGeography
LABOR RESOURCES

 Primorye has at its disposal 1.5 million potential workers, 94% of which are of able-bodied age. Over numerous years, Primoryes labor resources were replenished at the expense of newly eligible able-bodied generations and due to new settlers from other areas of Russia. In the last decades, labor resources grew slower than new job opportunities. So numerous sectors of the economy experienced  chronic labor shortage (Tabl. 6). Of 1,446.4 thousand persons of suitable age, 1,080 thousand, 1,038 thousand and 960 thousand were involved in active labor in 1991, 1992 and 1994, respectively. 
     In recent years, two reasons were responsible for the decrease in the number of people involved in socially beneficial labor. First, young people aged 16-29 became less active in labor and, second, not all those wishing to work could find an occupation because of rapid decrease in the number of available jobs, caused by critical phenomena
 in Primoryes economy. During the first six months of 1994 alone, Primorye lost about 20,000 vacant jobs. And during the years of post-Soviet reforms, the number of jobs decreased by more than 50,000. 
Labor resources        As a result, instead of shortage of labor, Primorye began to experience excess labor. So much so that for some categories of workers unemployment became commonplace.
 Initially, it made itself known in 1991, when about 22,000 persons applied to the local unemployment service and were mostly instantly employed. Only 246 persons were deemed jobless, and 135 of them received jobless benefits. In 1992, already 32,000 persons applied to the employment service, and in 1993 as many as 75,000.
 In 1992 and 1993, unemployment allowances were paid to 3,725 and 5,003 individuals, respectively. Rise of unemployment may be forecast for the very near future as well (Tabl.7).
    Many Primorye enterprises practice part-time working conditions and compel their employees to take forced unpaid vacations.
 Among various categories of workers, women are subject to higher risk of losing their jobs. In Primorye, they include 80% of all jobless people. The number of graduates of higher and secondary specialized institutions, vocational technical schools and unemployed is continually growing. On the whole, 36% of all jobless people include young folks below twenty-five.
    Most job cuts among Primoryes economic sectors occur in industry. Fifty-seven percent of all workers dismissed in connection with staff cuts involved industry. Work force is also being released in agriculture, construction, trade and public catering.
    The most acute situation on the labor market among Primoryes urban and country districts has come to involve Arseniev and Dalnegorsk, and Kavalerovo and Krasnoarmeisk and Chuguevka Districts. Over 30 percent of all jobless registered in Primorye involve those areas, where to find jobs is close to impossible. For example, forty candidates per one vacancy seek jobs in Chuguyevka District, and 316 in Dalnegorsk.
    Distribution of the employed population in economic sectors depends on the existing economic structure. Most labor resources in Primorye are employed in industry and transport. Most of those involved in industry are fishermen, ship repair hands, lumberjacks, miners and drift miners. Most transport workers include the merchant marine.
    Among non-production sectors, the credit-finance and insurance businesses are developing more rapidly than others are. Over the past three years, their employees increased by more than 30%. Employment in government is growing at a significant rate, including in Primoryes administrative agencies. At the same time, a number of non-production sectors connected with services do not develop. For example, over the last five years, employment in education and health had virtually remained on the same level. Again, scientific and cultural institutions and various services are actively losing their employees.
    Only quite recently, the bulk of Primoryes population was employed by state-owned enterprises. Today, they staff only 59 percent of all those employed. The rest had switched to new sectors of the economy involving enterprises with mixed form of ownership, joint enterprises, and private businesses. New sectors of the economy form quicker than in other sectors in agriculture, construction and trade, and in public services, providing credits and in insurance.
    Most Primorye residents are hired workers and office employees, 87% of the employed population. Besides them, new social groups are actively forming in Primorye, e.g. cooperative employees, entrepreneurs, and people involved in private businesses. Today, they involve almost 5 percent of the population. Cooperative employees are most numerous among them, totaling over 70,000.
 

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