PrimoryeGeography
MIGRATION


  Migration was always traditionally the source of  population growth in Primorye. In the nineteen-seventies, it involved from 30 to 35% of the total population growth in the region. However, now a sudden change had also occurred in this process: the flows of migrants are decreasing, and so is the direction of their movement. As a result migration has turned from a source of population growth into a factor of decline (Tabl.2).
Migration     Initially, the negative balance of migration in Primorye was established in 1991 in some of its cities and districts, viz. Vladivostok, Bolshoi Kamenj, Dalnegorsk, and in Laso, Khasan, Shkotovo and Partizansk Districts. However, by and large, the balance of population growth due to migration remained positive. And in 1992, the difference between newly arriving immigrants and leaving immigrants increased in favor of the latter. 
   Negative tendencies in migration are largely determined by extensive spread of so-called return migrations, namely return to their districts of residents who once arrived from there. In recent years, about one-half of the total number of leaving migrants included this bracket. Ukranians, Byelorussians, Latvians, Lithuanians, Armenians, Kazakhs, Tatars and Mordovians are chiefly involved in return migrations. Their wish to leave Primorye is chiefly motivated by their desire to restore their connections with their ethnic homeland and to be closer to their relatives.  This form of migration became especially popular after the disintegration of the USSR and with emergence of new states from former union republics.
   Among the factors that motivate return migrations of Russians the most frequent ones are high cost of life and poor socio-economic conditions, low wages and unsatisfactory labor conditions, and absence of normal housing.
   Along with increased return migrations in Primorye, the number of direct migrations is reducing virtually everywhere. In this case, weakening of government-regulated migration flows leads to a situation when the majority of migrants arrive in Primorye spontaneously. Refugees from areas of local hostilities, as well as forced migrants from former Soviet republics that had gained independence prevail among new migrants.
   By January 1, 1994, the number of new arrivals from this bracket had reached 1,785 persons (712 families). This is three times more than in early 1993. Most of the refugees and forced migrants are in dire moral and material straits. Many of them regard Primorye as a temporary haven. Regions of RussiaТs extreme north have also turned into major sources of migrants to Primorye. They provide for 20 percent of all new settlers, but, like refugees, arrivals from the north seldom associate their future with life in Primorye.
   Migration within Primorye is highly irregular. Among cities, the highest population exodus is observed from Dalnerechensk and Bolshoi Kamenj, and among rural districts from Olga, Khasan, Laso and Yakovlevka Districts. At the same time, in some towns and districts, migration is still conducive to population growth, for instance in Ussuriisk, Spassk, Mikhailovka and other districts.
   In recent years, migration within Primorye has also strongly changed. Only quite recently, Primorye villages lost most of their able-bodied population due to exodus of young people to urban areas. Today, an increasing number of urban residents move to the countryside (Tabl.3).

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