|Ethnographers believe that Primorye’s first inhabitants were paleo-Asian and Tungus-Manchurian peoples who appeared there 5-6 thousand years ago. The descendants of those peoples live there and in other regions of the Russian Far East even now. These include Nanaians, Udege, Orochi, Orokis, Ulchi, Evens, Evenks, and Negidalians. Some paleo-Asian peoples have moved to the northern areas of the Russian Far East to occupy vast areas in Khabarovsk Territory and Kamchatksa, Sakhalin and Magadan Regions.|
At one time, these peoples could use copper and iron, were familiar with cattle-husbandry and farming, built dwellings and sea vessels, and established ties with China, Japan, Korea and Mongolia. In fact, they founded the State of Bokhai, which existed from 698 to 926 A.D., and also the Chhurchzhen Empire (Golden Empire), which in 1115-1234 occupied not only the south of the Russian Far East, but also adjacent regions of Manchuria and Korea.
In the early 13th century, Chinghizkhan’s hordes destroyed Chzhurzhen cities and ports, fleet and fortresses, killed or enslaved most of the population. Chzhurzhen remnants hid from the Mongols in forests and river valleys, occupying wild uninhabited territories. Gradually they forgot their former working habits and started picking berries, nuts, roots, and edible grasses, catch fish, and hunt wild animals.
In the early 17th century, when Russian explorers first appeared in these lands, the indigenous peoples of the Far East were in the stage of disintegration of their primitive communal system.
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